Things to do by August 7

Skim Attributes of Open Pedagogy: A Model for Using Open Educational Resources. Educational Technology, 55(4), 3-13.
Read Textbooks, OER, and the need for open pedagogy.
Connect with your Learning Pod to review Post 3 and plan Post 4.
Publish Blog Post #4
Think about your research post topic. Let me know if you have questions!
Support someone who needs help.

Open is a word with a multitude of different meanings depending on the below.

open | Definition of open in English by Lexico Dictionaries

In an educational context, as in open education, the word Open has a more precise meaning, although there is certainly room for debate and discussion.

One of the definitions provided by Oxford (5.2) is

With no restrictions on those allowed to participate.
‘open discussion meetings’
‘each horse had won two open races’

This is the definition that most closely aligns with Irvine's Multi-Access Learning model that we discussed in Unit 3. Recall that the four tiers of access in that model are face-to-face synchronous, remote synchronous, remote asynchronous, and open. The open tier of access is for learners who join the course and participate in the activities, but are not formally registered for credit.

As you might imagine, however, it goes deeper than that. It might be helpful to think about open education being related to one or more of the following categories of openness.

Open Participation

This refers to tier four of the multi-access learning model, where barriers to participation are either lowered or removed altogether. Thompson Rivers University Open Learning is an example of a school that has lowered the barriers to participation by not requiring any prerequisites for the vast majority of their courses. They also offer some courses open on the web, like EDCI 339 is open on the web.

Open Permissions

This aspect of openness is related to the license on the materials that are used in a course. If you scroll to the bottom of Jesse Stommel's article, you will see that it is shared under a Creative Commons license. tapping on the link in the license will take you to the following page which details the freedoms that you may exercise in relation to the content.

Creative Commons - Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International - CC BY-NC 4.0

An open license allows end users (learners, faculty, anyone) to exercise five freedoms in relation to the content, known as the 5Rs. An end user is free to retain, reuse, revise, remix, and redistribute the material as long as they follow the specific guidelines of the license.

Read more about the 5Rs here.

Please follow the link below for more information about the specific licenses covered by Creative Commons.

Creative Commons licenses - Creative Commons

Read More - Traditional Knowledge (TK) Labels and Licenses

There are also more recently developed licenses and labels designed specifically for Indigenous traditional knowledge, as below. TK Licenses - Local Contexts

Open Pedagogy

When faculty use openly licensed materials, or they empower learners to produce openly licensed materials, often with an end goal of promoting social justice for marginalized people, they might be considered to be engaging in open pedagogy (Hegarty, 2015; Lambert, 2019). The assigned readings for this unit, talk specifically about open pedagogy.

Open Platforms

You may have noticed that Wiley's description of open content refers to the nature of the platform used to publish the material. If the platform is not open, or somehow prevents end users from exercising their 5R freedoms, then it is difficult to consider the material to be truly open. An example of an open platform would be Wikipedia, where anyone with access to a connection to the internet and sufficient bandwidth and computing power can edit and revise content. Compare this to a PDF document, which is very difficult to revise.

Open Policies

This final category of openness is related to institutional policies that encourage openness in one or more of the preceding categories. An example of this is Kwantlen Polytechnic University which has developed a set of policies that encourage faculty to use and produce open textbooks and other materials in their courses and programs. KPU (as of this writing) has identified six full credentials students may complete with zero textbook costs. They call these programs Z-Cred (pronounced 'zed-cred' because we are in Canada!) indicating that there are zero required textbook costs.

KPU classes - with $0 for textbooks!

Tap here for Unit 6 Readings


Hegarty, B. (2015). Attributes of Open Pedagogy: A Model for Using Open Educational Resources. Educational Technology, 55(4), 3–13. Retrieved from JSTOR.

Irvine, V., Code, J., & Richards, L. (2013). Realigning higher education for the 21st-century learner through multi-access learning. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 9(2). Retrieved from

Lambert, S. R. (2018). Changing our (Dis)Course: A Distinctive Social Justice Aligned Definition of Open Education. Journal of Learning for Development - JL4D, 5(3). Retrieved from